Quraysh themselves provided a valid reason or rather made it unavoidable for the Muslims to lay their hands on Mecca, when they (after having a treaty with Muslims in Hudaybia) helped Banu Bakr (their allies) with weapons and men against Banu Khuza’a (the Muslim’s allies) in which Banu Khuza’a lost a number of their men.
The move to Makkah took place in Ramadhan, 8 A.H.; the Muslim force was 10,000 soldiers. There were a dozen casualties among Quraysh and two martyrs among the Muslims.
The result of the battle that Allah allowed His Apostle to gain the upper hand over Mecca and the Quraysh yielded obedience to him, willingly or unwillingly.
BATTLE OF HUNAYN
As they began to harbor hopes of winning the laurels by bringing the Muslims upon their knees. The tribe of Hawazin saw a god-sent opportunity to build up their fame on the declining prestige of the Quraysh. It was the 10th of Shawwal, 8 A.H. when the army reached Hunayn (a wadi situated between Makkah and Ta’if). The Apostle mobilized 12,000 soldiers, where the pagans came with 20,000 soldiers in addition to their women, children, and their cattle.
Four Muslims laid down their lives in the battle of Hunayn while they killed many of the infidels, The result of the battle was a great victory for the Muslims over their enemy, and the captives of Hunayn numbered six thousand. The spoils included twenty-four thousand camels, forty thousand or more goats and four thousand ounce of silver.
THE BATTLE OF TA’IF
The reason for this battle was to get hold of the warriors of Thaqif who fled from Hunayn returned to Ta’if. It took place immediately after the battle of Hunain.
The Prophet, used for the first time catapults in the siege of Ta’if whose ingress and egress were completely blocked. The arrows shot by the enemy took its toll on the lives of several Muslims (12 soldiers). The siege continued for some twenty-five to thirty nights. Allah had not willed the fall of Ta’if. So the Prophet gave orders to lift the siege and depart.
THE EXPEDITION TO TABUK
The purpose of the expedition was to strike terror into the neighboring force, which was a potential threat to the rising power of Islam.
The move to Tabuk took place in Rajb, 9 A.H.; it situated halfway between Madeenah and Damascus, about 700 km from Madeenah. It was against Romans and their allies of the Arabian tribes. The Muslim’s force was 30,000 soldiers.
When the Apostle saw that there was no movement of troops bthe enemy who seemedto have abandoned the border towns, he gave orders for the return march. The objective of the expedition having been achieved
THE YEAR OF DEPUTATIONS
The Prophet of God (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) felt happy on the arrival of a deputation from Tujib. They asked questions about a number of things and the Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) got the answers to their questions written for them. Then they made a request on being told more about the Qur’an and the Sunnah which caused the Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) to express fondness for them. He instructed Bilal (radiallahu ‘anhu) to entertain them 0well. However, they stayed but for a few days with the Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) and expressed the desire to return to their homes. When they were asked why they wanted to depart so soon, they replied, “We want to go back to tell our people how we met the Messenger of God (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam), what talks we had with him and what replies he gave to our questions.” Thereafter they returned and again called upon the Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) during the pilgrimage in 10 A.H. when the Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) was at Mina. (Zad al-Ma’ad, Vol. II, p. 43)
Deputation also called upon the Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) from Bani Fazara, Bani Asad, Bahra and ‘Adhara, and all of them accepted Islam. The Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) promised them the capture of Syria, but forbade them to have recourse to seers for divination of the future and commanded them to cease offering the sacrifices they had been doing hitherto. He also told them that only the sacrifice on the occasion of ‘Id-ul-Adha was lawful for them. When the delegations of Bali, Dhi Murrah and Khawlan called upon the Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam), he asked them about the idol of Khawlan(60) to which they had been paying divine honors. They replied, “God bless you! God has replaced it by what has been brought by you. There are, however, a few elderly persons and senile women who are devoted to it but we will break it when we go back.(61) Deputations also came to the Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) from Muharib, Ghassan, Ghamid and Nakh’a.(62) The envoys of Arabian tribes coming to Madeenah learnt about Islam and its institutions, watched the graceful and genial behavior of the Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) and benefited from the company of the Prophet’s companions (radiallahu ‘anhum). Tents were often set-up for them in the courtyard of the Prophet’s mosque from where they saw the Muslims offering prayers and reciting the Qur’an. They spoke plainly and frankly, asked whatever they wanted while the Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) replied to their questions in all sobriety, explained the wisdom of Islam and quoted excerpts from the scripture which were instrumental to their certitude and peace of heart.
THE PROPHET’S (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) CONVERSATION WITH A PAGAN
Perhaps the most remarkable feature of the character of the Arabs was their openness, outspokenness or frankness to the point of being blunt and tough. The talk that Kinana b. ‘Abd Yalil, a pagan chief, had with the Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) of God illustrates the brusqueness of the sons of the desert.
Kinana said, “As for adultery, we mostly remain bachelors or cannot get married,(63) so we must need to indulge in it.”
The Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) replied, “That is unlawful for you. God has commanded; and come not near unto adultery. Lo! It is an abomination and an evil way.” [Qur’an 17:32]
Kinana said again, “What you say about usury means our entire property is nothing but usury.”
“You have the right,” replied the Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam), “to get back the original sum lent by you for God has ordered: ‘O ye who believe! Observe your duty to Allah, and give up what remaineth (due to you) from usury, if ye are (in truth) believers.’ [Qur’an 2:278]”
“As regards wine,” Kinana said further, “it is the juice of our lands and a must for us.”
“Allah has forbidden it,” replied the Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) and then recited the verse, ‘O ye who believe! Strong drink and games of chance and idols and divining arrows are only an infamy of Satan’s handiwork. Leave it aside in order that ye may succeed.’ [Qur’an 5:90]”
Kinana again inquired, “What do you say about the idol Rabbah?”
“Break it,” answered the Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam). Kinana and his companions were taken aback. They protested, “If Rabbah were to know that you want to break her, she would finish all of her priest!”
‘Umar (radiallahu ‘anhu) now intervened to say, “O ‘Abd Yalil, woe to you! How ignorant are you? What else is Rabbah except as a stone?”
Kinana and his friends replied angrily, “Ibn al-Khattab, we have not come to ask you.” Then turning to the Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) he said, “You may break it, but we cannot.”
The Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) then said to them, “I will send someone with you who will do it for you…”
The deputation then took its leave from the Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) who gave them a send off. Before leaving for their homes they requested the Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) to appoint a leader for them. ‘Uthman b. Abi al-As was selected by the Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) to act as their leader. He was the youngest among them but the Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) had noticed his keen interest in religion and he had also learnt some of the Qur’an before leaving Madeenah.” (Zad al-Ma’ad, Vol. IV, p.25)
COMMANDMENT FOR ZAKAT AND CHARITY
The divine commandment making it incumbent upon the Muslims to pay Zakat i.e. a tax at a fixed rate in proportion to the worth of the property, was revealed in the ninth year of the Hijrah. (Tarikh Tabri, Vol. IV, p.724) The Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) sent the order for collection of poor-due to all the functionaries appointed in the areas where the people had accepted Islam.
 (Zad al-Ma’ad, Vol. II, pp. 44-47)
 (Zad al-Ma’ad, Vol. II, p. 43)
 (Zad al-Ma’ad, Vol. II, p. 47-55)
 Kinana perhaps meant that they could not get married as they were mostly out with commercial caravans.