It was during this period that the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) found himself transported at night to the Ka’bah and from there to the place of Solomon’s Temple in Jerusalem, where Masjid-ul-Aqsa now stands. Then he was borne to the celestial regions where he witnessed the seven heavens, met the prophets of yore and saw the remarkable signs of divine majesty about which the Qur’an says: “The eye turned not aside nor yet was overbold, verily he saw one of the greater revelations of his Lord.” [Qur’aan 53:17-18]
The occurrence of the event at that time was meant to confer dignity upon the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam); it signified something like viands of higher regale in order to console and alleviate the feelings of distress caused to him by the persecution of the pagans at Ta’if. After the Ascension incident, the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) told the people about his nocturnal journey, but the Quraysh mocked him and shook their heads stating that it was inconceivable and beyond the bounds of reason. When Abu Bakr (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) saw the Quraysh accusing the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) of falsehood he said, “What makes you wonder about it? If he said this, then it must be true. By God, he tells me that the revelation descends upon him from Heaven in a flash or in an instant during the day or night and I testify for him. This is even more unimaginable and difficult than what seems to astound you.” (Ibn Kathir, Vol. II, p. 96, Ibn Hisham, Vol. I, p. 399)
REAL SIGNIFICANCE OF ASCENSION
The ascension did not occur in a routine or ordinary run of things only to demonstrate the profound phenomena of the Kingdom of God in the Heavens and the earth to the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) of Islam. More than that, such a prophetic journey of tremendous importance alludes to a number of other significant and complex realities of far-reaching concern to humanity. The two Surahs of Isra and An-Najm revealed in connection with this heavenly journey indicate that Muhammad (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) was charged with the office of prophethood for both the Houses of God, those in Jerusalem and Mecca, and was sent as the leader of the east and the west or the entire human race ‘til the end of time. As the inheritor of all the prophets of old, he represented the fulfillment and consummation of mankind’s religious development. His nightly journey from Mecca to Jerusalem expresses, in a figurative way, that his personality conformed and alluded to the oneness of Bait-ul-Haram (K’aba at Mecca) and Masjid-ul-Aqsa (The Dome of Rock at Jerusalem). That all the prophets arrayed themselves behind him in Masjidul-Aqsa shows that the doctrine of Islam, preached by him, was final, universal and all comprehensive–meant for every class and section of human society throughout the ages.
The event is, at the same time, indicative of the comprehensiveness of the Prophet’s (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) prophethood, the place accorded to his followers in the great task of humanity’s guidance and the distinctive character of his message.
Frankly speaking, the ascension of the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) represents a demarcation line between the regional, limited and variable rules of divine guidance entrusted to the prophets of old and the global, comprehensive and abiding principles of faith conferred to the universal leader of human race. Had the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) been a sectional or regional guide, a national leader, the savior of any particular race or the restorer of the glory of any particular people, there would have been no need to honor him with ascension to the heavens nor would he have been required to perceive the hidden phenomena of the Heavens and the earth. Nor would it have been necessary to create a new link between the celestial and the earthly surface of the Divine Kingdom; in that case the confines of his own land, his surroundings environs and the times would have been sufficient enough and there would have been no need for him to divert his attention to any other land or country. Neither his ascension to the most sublime regions of the Heavens and to the “Lot-Tree of the Farthest Limit”(19) nor even the nocturnal journey to the far away Jerusalem, then in the grip of the powerful Christian Empire of Byzantium, would have been necessary at all.
The ascension of the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) was a divine proclamation that he had nothing to do with the category of national or political leaders whose endeavours are limited to their own country and nation. For they serve the nations and races to which they belong and are a product of their time, they serve the need of a particular juncture. The Prophet (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) of Islam, on the contrary, belonged to the luminous line of the Messengers of God (‘alaihimus salaam) who communicate the inspired message of Heaven to the earth. They are links between God and his creatures. Their messages transcend the limitations of time and space, race and color and country or nation, for they are meant for the exaltation of man irrespective of color, race or country.
On this occasion, God made fifty prayers a day obligatory for the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and his followers. The Prophet (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) constantly implored God for the reduction of the burden of prayers until the Lord was also pleased to limit these to only five times daily. The Lord was also pleased to declare that whoever properly performs these five times daily prayers would be recompensed for all the fifty daily prayers enjoined earlier. (Al-Bukhaari, Kitab-us-Salat)
TRIBES INVITED TO ISLAM
Thereafter the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) started convening the members of different tribes who came to Mecca for the pilgrimage. He used to explain to them the doctrine of Islam and to solicit support in his mission. He often told the tribesmen. “O ye people, I have been sent to you as the Messenger of God for asking you to worship Him, to call on you to associate nothing with Him and to renounce everything you have elevated as His co-equal. Believe in God and His Prophet and protect me until I have explained that which God has sent to me.”
Whenever the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) counseled any tribe and finished talking to it, Abu Lahab usually stood up to say, “O ye people, this fellow wants you to cast off your obedience to Al-Lat and Al-Uzza and your allies, the Jinn and to exchange your Gods from the wickedness and innovation he has brought. Don’t take orders from him nor pay any heed to him. (Ibn Hisham, Vol. pp. 422-23)
 The Qur’anic expression Sidratul-muntaha (cf. Q. 53: 14) alludes to shady lot-tree of Paradise. According to some of the earliest commentators of the Qur’an the divine writs are first sent to the lot-tree from where the angels bring it to the earth.